Rusty’s Science Fiction Blog

Science Fiction for the 21st Century

Traveling across the universe without falling off the edge!

Space is strange


The universe is a strange place. It is a space-time structure, which, because of gravity, may fold back upon itself. We can only see a portion of it called the Observable Universe, which has a radius of about 47 billion miles last time I checked. And, it is universally agreed that it is much larger than that and most scientists believe that it is in fact infinite!

But…wait a minute…the latest estimates I’m aware of place it’s age at 13.7 billion years old so how could we have a visible diameter of 94 billion? As I said, a strange place. Obviously, although matter cannot accelerate past the speed of light, the universe can expand faster than the speed of light. As for how can we see objects 47 billion light years away–this is because the universe was expanding while that light was traveling toward us (I know…but that’s another post so, for now, you’ll need Google to get further explanations on this one).

A article in New discoveries indicates that the universe may not be infinite but finite. In my four-part sci-fi series, The Spiral Slayers, the ‘Slayer’s universe’ is finite. So could we ever reach the universe’s edge and, if we could, what would it look like and what would be beyond it?

Here is a very interesting documentary on this subject—it’s a bit long but really worth watching!

Both in reality (if it is finite) and in the Spiral Slayers’ universe, the answer to these questions are both ‘no’ and ‘maybe’.

The ‘no’ part of this is that space-time, as I have already pointed out, folds back upon itself because of gravity and, we are part of space-time and simply can’t remove ourselves from it. Long before we could come anywhere close to the universe’s edge, space-time would bend both our view and path away from it and we could never reach it.

The maybe part is that perhaps we are looking at the edge of the universe, at least a portion of it, every time we look at a black hole (which isn’t often, lol…one has never been observed directly).

Standard Artist Drawing of a Black Hole

Standard Artist Drawing of a Black Hole

Black Holes have 2 basic parts:

  1. The singularity which is a point particle with infinite density (it has no volume)
  2. The even horizon, the point at which not even light can escape the singularities gravity.

Most black holes are pulling in matter which spirals into it. This is called an accretion disk. In the image below this is cut off at the event horizon for clarity–in reality it extends beyond the event horizon.

Parts of a black hole

Parts of a black hole

This edge of the universe is probably the event horizon as nothing, not even light, can escape from it which is to say once you enter you can never return.

Usual representation of a black hole.

Usual representation of a black hole.

In reality, generally, event horizons cannot be seen. This is because the intense gravitational pull warps space-time around the event horizon (this of course includes light) hiding it! What we see is the light from behind warping around it.

Space Time Warp

Space Time–including light–folds around an event horizon hiding it.

If there were no accretion disk we would only see the distorted light from behind and if there were no light behind it, we wouldn’t see anything at all.

What a black hole looks like with no accretion disk--stars and galaxies behind are moved, stretched out and distorted by the intense gravity.

What a black hole looks like with no accretion disk–stars and galaxies behind are moved, stretched out and distorted by the intense gravity.

Alternately, the ‘edge of the universe’ (assuming this is correct) may be the singularity itself. I think at this point it’s really just a matter of definition. In my story, the all-knowing Spiral Slayers can return from inside the event horizon and it’s definitely the singularity that is the universe’s edge.

As for what we’d find beyond the universe, we don’t know and, in my story and probably in reality as well, anything outside the universe is, by definition, unknowable. Is the singularity all there is beyond the bounds of our universe? That is to say, is there only infinite density? In the Spiral Slayer’s universe, infinite density (the singularity of a black hole) and, an absolute vacuum (nothing, no vacuum energy, no virtual particles, nothing) are the same thing. Ergo, is there absolutely nothing beyond the bounds of our universe.

Or, is the singularity just the gatekeeper and something else…another universe or ‘the bulk’ containing other universes (the multiverse) or…?

In the next post we’ll talk about one of the more controversial elements of my story; traveling between galactic super clusters and across the Observable Universe while observing light’s speed limit.

Rusty Williamson

The Dream Particle: The Direction I Took… Part 2

As discussed in the last few posts, string theory jumped the railroad tracks of science when rumor became truth and I had to ditch strings and find a new quantum realm to base the Spiral Slayer universe on. I decided to make up my own extension to the Standard Model. This was after all science fiction and the basis of my plot was tangled in quantum physics.

So I invented the Super Speck whose properties were listed in my last post (actually my last post was an update to book two so, the post before last). Although I wanted to travel across the universe (not between stars, not between galaxies, not between galactic clusters but between super clusters) while maintaining the limit of the speed of light, I was going to allow wormhole travel that instantly moved you about and therefore I needed a solution to ‘casualty’.

Causality refers to the reversal of cause and effect (ergo: effect and than cause). For instance, if you could go back in time and kill your grandmother before your mother was born then how could you exist to perform this murder in the first place? To resolve causality we must look to the two slit experiment where light travels through two slits and creates a wave pattern on a surface beyond this.


Two Slit Experiment

The two slit experiment

This experiment shows that photons aimed at the two slits take all available options. That is to say, the photons go though slit a, go through slit b, go though at different angles and miss both slits…all at the same time! The more the photons go through a certain way the brighter the area on the screen. Therefore the wave pattern created on the screen represent the probability of the photon taking that path. This is the probability wave and, it either collapses or it does not. No one has seen this wave collapse and this is the thing that makes quantum physicists break out in sweat and get dizzy.  If the probability wave does not crash then we must wind up with one of the ‘Many Worlds’ theories. This says that the photon does all these things in other dimensions that we can not detect–these dimensions are different timelines.

Therefore when a person goes back in time and prevents his mother from existing they create another timeline where they do not exist. This strange arrangement must start at the quantum level and whatever else my super speck does, it must account for space time and its properties we see from day to day as well as different timelines that we can not detect. I do this with the super specks alignment.

There are two types of speck alignment. To interact, both must be aligned. The speck particle can be pictured as a vibrating line of energy. Vibrations differ in frequency, distance along the string, distance from line when straight, direction(s) in 3D space, speed, curve(s) and shape. There is directional alignment (direction of the string in 3D space) and there is phase alignment, which is alignment of the vibration cycle. if both of these are in alignment, the two speck particles can interact (you can push it with you finger). If only one of these is in alignment you can not but you can detect it in the past (for our purposes you can detect the photons it emitted in the past but you cannot push it with your finger as you cannot affect the past).

How do we in the macro world perceive these things?

Directional alignment:

Below the level (size) of quarks and gluons, macro space time as we know it falls apart. When a universe is born, reflections of the speck particle exploded outward tumbling this way and that. As this happens, aligned specks bond into sStrings. Only specks (and sStrings they form) that are ‘aligned’ can interact with each other and they do this no matter where they are physically located in the realm of the sStrings (A.K.A. foam). In our macro view of space time this inability to interact appears as space time—a distance in space time between objects.

If your finger pushes an object, the sStrings in your finger and the object are aligned but maybe anywhere in the realm of sStrings. Likewise, an sString in a star does not interact with an sString in your finger because they are out of alignment even though in the realm of the sStrings they may be right next to each other and again, this alignment difference and inability to interact translate to distance and time in our macro view.

This of course means that only aligned sStrings can interact to form real or virtual quarks or gluons but to tangle and knot together they must also be next to each other in the sString realm.

Wormholes are possible within the realm of the sString because of this difference between our macro space time and the virtual physical layout within the sString’s realm. Wormholes are pipe-like structures formed by sStrings that can change the alignment of sStrings passing through them therefore changing their physical location in our macro space time.

Phase alignment:

The second type of alignment is phase or rhythm alignment meaning the alignment of the vibrations. The alignment of the sStrings (ergo the speck particles that form them) are what creates the macro space time probability timelines. As you look towards a distant star, the space time perceived between you and the star is a gradual change of the speck particle’s directional alignment. You see the star as it was in the past when its speck particles were the same alignment as yours and everything you see around you, you see in the macro space time past. This is all directional alignment.

However, the change of phase alignment determines and separates the timelines. This is the probability wave observed in the two slit experiment where light passing through the two slits (in the two slit experiment) forms a wave pattern. Different realities are timelines whose speck particle’s phase alignment has changed. The inability to interact in this case does not translate to time space or distance. It does not translate at the macro at all. Even though we can only see and interact with the timeline we are on, it is there and takes up time and space in the quantum realm. Our universe ran out of quantum room about four billion years ago and at this point the ever accelerating expansion of the universe began as more and more alternate timelines came into being and needed more quantum room.

In the next post we will switch from the quantum realm to the cosmic realm and discuss where the edge of the universe is and how it is possible to travel across the universe.

The dream particle: The direction I took… Part 1

The Dream Particle: The Super Speck

Deciding to get away from String Theory and in fact, all current quantum theories in the Spiral Slayer universe, I invented the Super Speck to be the smallest, most elementary particle.

The super speck or speck particle has some amazing properties.

1.      It vibrates and has three trillion different vibrations.

2.      It is a reflective particle which means that if surrounded by a single state[1] (the complete death of a universe) it reflects itself ten times and all reflections reflect ten times continuing up to (VV)V times where V are the number of vibrations (three trillion).

3.      The super speck’s reflective burst (A.K.A. the Big Bang) begins by only expanding space-time (i.e. in the beginning reflections only differ in directional alignment). Then, over the course of the burst, begin switching to the expansion of timelines (i.e. reflections also differ in phase alignment). After about four billion years the changeover is complete and all reflections expand the number of timelines. This soon fills up quantum space becoming the cause of the universe’s expansion. As more space is created this creates more timelines. This self-feeding circle causes accelerating expansion.

4.      Within its three trillion vibrations is encoded all the information needed to create a universe.

5.      When an intelligent species reaches the Rho level of development, Speculators, who translate the speck’s vibrations, begin to replace scientists and the scientific method.

6.      When an intelligent species has translated all the speck’s vibrations, they will ‘know’ everything that is knowable[2] and be at the Phi level of development.

7.      When an intelligent species comes to understand all the knowledge from the speck, they will ‘know and understand’ everything knowable and be at the uppermost level of development: the Omega Level.

8.      Universes die when their expansion has stretched out the speck particles so much that their vibrations vanish and speck reflections die until only one speck particle is left.

9.      When only one speck particle is left (this is always the original and only real speck particle) the dynamics of the cosmos changes and the remaining speck becomes the only thing that exists which means it has all the energy that exists and is surrounded by a single state. This triggers the reflection burst that creates the next universe.

10.   Speck particles that are aligned join to form speck strings or sStrings and these create space-time.

11.   Aligned sStrings become tangled creating permanent knots (the quirks and gluons that create matter) and temporary knots (virtual quirks and gluons).

12.   The sStrings (and therefore sString knots) can only interact with other sStrings whose speck particles are aligned creating the macro here and now space-time we know.

However…there’s even more! But that’s the next sci-fi post.

[1] A single state means that everywhere you look is the same. Examples of this are a singularity or an absolute vacuüm (where there are not virtual particles are anything else). A single state cannot exist within a universe.

[2] Anything within the universe is knowable. Anything beyond the realm of the universe is unknowable.

Update on Book Two

The Spiral Slayers: Countdown ArmageddonThinker

Hi! I have some very exciting news about the 2nd book in the series! First the tentative release date is April 2014. But you’re going to get something well before then: ‘The Countdown Teaser’ will be released by mid January 2014! This will be the first part of Countdown Armageddon (The Preface, Chapter 1 and a small part of Chapter 2) plus details of a contest and prizes up for grabs running between the Teaser release and the release of Countdown Armageddon! So put on your science/detective hats and try to figure out some strange things you may not have noticed in Book One ‘Encounters”.

The ‘Teaser’ will give you a taste of what’s coming and present puzzles only the best of you will be able to solve. If you’ve finished ‘Encounters’ you’ve probably have a real good idea of one of the puzzles to be solved.

Development of the Spiral Slayer Universe Part 2 : The Spiral Slayers and the Death of Super Strings

Ten Dimensions of Superstrings
Ten Dimensions of Superstrings



This is an interesting, though complex, story! 

Between the late eighties and the early 2000s I was totally into string theory. I was there for the five different theories, the bane worlds and M-theory that joined the five theories. The downfall of superstring theory, at least for myself, was only months away but, in reality, for myself anyway, was already happening due to a number of items. 

I had no issue with string theory’s biggest problem, which was that it could not make any predictions that

An apple

An apple

could readily be tested. Because I was a ‘believer’, I even had my own arguments for this quandary. They went like this: in fact, there were predictions strings could make… it’s just that Relativity and/or quantum mechanics and/or QED had already made these predictions and lab tests had already confirmed them. Not only did it sound good, it was true…for instance, ‘strings’ could absolutely predict gravity but so could an apple. 

The first crack in my stringy beliefs was no more than just an uneasy feeling I got when I heard Mr. Stringman himself–Brian Green—pronounce, “(string theory) is too elegant to be wrong.” OK, I’ve been sitting here for many minutes trying and I cannot explain why this hit me as so wrong. 




There were other minor things—especially ‘M-Theory’ that supposedly explained the five different string theories but not, it seemed, itself. However, the absolute showstopper was the big lie and I’m just now realizing it’s something that’s going to be a little hard to explain but I’ll do my best.  

One bedrock of any theory’s reliability is the level to which the math behind it is finite. That is to say, it produces few or no infinities. It’s called or referred to as the theory’s ‘level of approximation’. The leading contenders in quantum physics—superstrings and Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG)—had both been proven ‘finite’. Article after article since the mid-80s had stated that the superstring theory was proven finite. That foundation supporting string theory, after all these years, was simply a given or, so they said. 

But then…


Cut Strings


…around 2002 a physicist named Lee Smolin—a giant in the field–was asked to write a report on the state of all the different quantum theories now on the table and, to make a long story short, he discovered that no one had ever proven any of the five string theories to be finite! To my knowledge, no one has done it yet. Evidently, someone, somewhere, at some time had just stated this and everyone had just jumped on board–unbelievable! 

Upon discovering this, personally, I pretty much gave the big finger to string theory. 

Understand that I had based The Spiral Slayers universe on string theory! Bane worlds were playing key parts in the story. I almost completely give up on the story…hell, I almost decided to chuck science and writing sci-fi completely. When a pet theory, one you’ve devoted decades to studying, supporting and believing in turns sour…you basically go through the 5 phases of grief.  I went into a deep depression and stopped all work on The Spiral Slayers book, the trailer and definitely on my reading of science books. 

Of course I bounced back (I’m the original bounce back kid). In the next post, the direction I took.


Merry Christmas and Happy New Year

Rusty Williamson

Development of the Spiral Slayer Universe Part 1


The cosmic and quantum universe used in The Spiral Slayers Quadrilogy is based on current state of cosmology and the standard model of quantum mechanics. It is then extended up to and including what dark matter and dark energy are as well as why we and the universe exist. Unfortunately, you will have to wait for the fourth and last installment for the answer to the latter.

Concerning the extensions to cosmology and quantum physics, one of the cornerstones of the Spiral Slayer Universe is this strange and intriguing fact:

The properties of infinite density (a singularity) and that an absolute vacuum (this means no vacuum energy, no virtual particles, absolutely nothing) are the same. Actually, neither have any properties but, if you were to try to break it down then:

A singularity (infinite density or a black hole):

·        Is completely uniform, that is, it is the same everywhere.

·        Has no events

·        Has no time

·        Has no temperature

·        Has no volume

·        It cannot exist within the universe (one like ours anyway)*

* We see the effects of a singularity (absolute vacuum) but the singularity itself is outside of the universe. When we see a black hole (as much of it as we can see of it anyway) we are looking at the edge of our universe. BTW, in my story, the event horizon is not the edge of our universe. What is inside the event horizon is still within our universe even though, in most situations, it is past the point of no return.

An absolute vacuum… which also cannot exist within the universe, has the same properties (or lack of them). Therefore, in The Spiral Slayers sci-fi series, the two things are the same.

There is one more property that both of these states have—in the Spiral Slayer universe any way:

·   Space time is infinitely warped (or, infinite gravity)

Since the two are the same, both can be called a singularity or, as it is called in The Spiral Slayers series, a unistate. This means it has only one state (where ‘state’ represents a condition like electricity can have two states, negative and positive, or a computer byte can have two states, on or off).

Clock Face Of A UniStateHow can this be viewed? If you picture the face of a clock, and say that twelve o’clock is the unistate (i.e. the singularity or the absolute vacuum) then one o’clock might be a neutron star and eleven o’clock might be a thin, low power area of vacuum energy and virtual particles.

What this means is that everything is not pulled towards mass but rather is pulled towards fewer states.

Assuming the above is true changes quite a lot! Now not only does matter produce gravity (or bend space-time), emptiness (or the absence of matter) does too! This actually takes care of dark matter, as the gravitational effects of this unseen ‘dark’ matter is now just the balance of the gravity from matter and gravity from emptiness or, in both cases, the approach to a lesser number of states (by stretching out or condensing states until they are closer to a single state). We know what matter’s gravitational falloff is. For the universe to work the way it does with these strange new rules simply depends on the proper setting of emptiness’ gravitational fall off.

Book one of The Spiral Slayers establishes the first cosmic law of the (Spiral Slayer) universe.

The first cosmic law: There must always be more than one state.

In a unistate (either a singularity or an absolute vacuum), there is only one state. It is the same everywhere. Therefore, nothing exists. Therefore, the first cosmic law simply says that ‘something’ must exist. Think about that one!

In the next post, we will look at the Super Speck (and discuss what happened to the Super String) and see how the universe exists between the 12:01 and 11:59 on that clock we talked about.




The Spiral Slayers…how it happened…

Anderson Ship yards with Levitation Class Battleship in foreground.

Anderson Ship yards with Levitation Class Battleship in foreground.


My first novel–actually a 4-book series of which I’ve finished book one and am working on book two–came about in a strange way. In fact, I’ll start with how I became a sci-fi fan.

I was medevac’d  home from Vietnam in 1972. After getting out of the hospital I did the easiest thing, I moved back in with my parents. The first night I was there I saw Star Trek for the first time and became a sci-fi fan.

I can vividly remember the first time I came up with a sci-fi story idea. It was 1978, I’d been married for four-years and had a three-year old daughter and a new-born son and we were living in the first house we bought. I was in the garage ‘smoking funny things’ when I came up with a story idea called Networld. Looking back it was ahead of its time. Continue reading